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Sequence of Events Warfare Comes to Diné Bikéyah (Navajo Homeland)

The Persecution of the Ndé (Mescalero Apaches)


When the Civil War began in 1861, the U.S. government temporarily withdrew troops from the Territory of New Mexico to bolster defenses in the eastern states. Confederate troops invaded from Texas and briefly took control of Santa Fe and Albuquerque. Brigadier General James H. Carleton and his California Column arrived to counter the invasion, only to find the Confederates had been expelled by New Mexican soldiers. Carleton, the newly appointed territory commander, turned his attention to the subjugation of Native peoples. He ordered Colonel Kit Carson to subdue the Mescaleros, using any means necessary. Hundreds of Mescalero Apaches eventually surrendered and were sent to Bosque Redondo.

The attitude towards General James Carleton was very poor, very bad because he wouldn't listen to anything. He was very brutal in his demands... He told his people that any time they encountered the Mescalero that they were to be shot; there was to be no quarters, they were to be sent to prison immediately without any negotiations. It was final.

Frederick PesoNdé

Go to the Bosque Redondo or we will pursue and destroy you. We will not make peace with you on any terms.

Brigadier General James H. Carleton